am a Cpl. in the Army and just returned from Iraq. I carried my shotgun
all year on my back in your shotgun scabbard, and it worked great! I
was glad to have it around several times, and it proved to be an easy
way to keep the shotgun handy for the squad. Thanks for your great
product, and for your support of our troops!!|
Cpl. C.R. [omitted]
36th Infantry Div.
Got the T-shirt....IT ROCKS!!!!
Sir, The Falcon Chest Harness finally arrived to me at Camp Taji, Iraq.
Thank You! It is now set up for fitting over my IOTV and Battle
(already the guys are asking who to order one from, so you might be getting a few more requests!!!).
Dear SF company.
for sending another t-shirt it looks great the boys in the unit will
want one when they see it. I'll be sending them right to you.
Another happy customer
I was stationed at Camp Pendleton I was in Weapons Company 3/5. The
unit made us t-shirts with the 3/5 logo/emblem/crest, "Consumate
Professionals". I was honorable discharged in 1999 and the t-shirt has
been long-gone. I searched a couple of web site to find a shirt with the
logo/emblem/crest but there was no luck. It didn't take me long to
search this site before I found what I was looking for. When the shirt
arrived it was better than what I expected. I love the t-shirt and wear
it with pride and often. Thank you SpecialForces.com
Your Shirts are the best.
Thank you for being so prompt with my order, and the refund as well.
I thought a little constructive thoughts were in order.
The "HRT" boot knife is well constructed. I had to "hone" the edge though, both sides,to get it up to spec.
for the "GI USMC Combat Knife"......Well, it wasn't really a K-Bar, at
least not one that I've ever seen. It read "US", and above that it read
"Ontario". No worries though, after I used a ceramic sharpening stone on
both the small back edge and the full length edge, I'm quite pleased
with them both. Oh, I almost forgot, both were very pretty well
I'll be purchasing again from you in the near future.
Dear Special Forces
I received my order i have to say that is better than i expected! Thank you and you'll hear fom me soon.
They turned out GREAT!!!!!! Thanks. I will be back for other things.
Thanks Folks. As always you have been most polite and professional. Best wishes for a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.
Jack And Melanie Edgar
That looks awesome! Is there any logo on the front? Can I buy these off
the website? I'm sure a lot of SWCC guys are going to want these!
Amanda Van Every
love the art work. They are awesome. I'll be ordering mine right after
this. Thanks for all the work. I am recommending you guys to all the
other battalions and ODA's.
Just to let you know all items have been recieved, fantastic quality as all ways.
Cheers Andrew and best wishes for the New Year.
to the new Special Forces Gear News Letter! Each month we send out a
lot of information and great deals, and to make it easier to read, we've
written a summary of the longer articles in this email.
A crash as when some swollen cloud
Cracks o'er the tangled trees!
With side to side, and spar to spar,
Whose smoking decks are these?
I know St. George's blood-red cross,
Thou mistress of the seas,
But what is she whose streaming bars
Roll out before the breeze?
Ah, well her iron ribs are knit,
Whose thunders strive to quell
The bellowing throats, the blazing lips,
That pealed the Armada's knell!
The mist was cleared,--a wreath of stars
Rose o'er the crimsoned swell,
And, wavering from its haughty peak,
The cross of England fell!
THE CRUISE OF THE "WASP"
the war of 1812 the little American navy, including only a dozen
frigates and sloops of war, won a series of victories against the
English, the hitherto undoubted masters of the sea, that attracted an
attention altogether out of proportion to the force of the combatants or
the actual damage done. For one hundred and fifty years the English
ships of war had failed to find fit rivals in those of any other
European power, although they had been matched against each in turn; and
when the unknown navy of the new nation growing up across the Atlantic
did what no European navy had ever been able to do, not only the English
and Americans, but the people of Continental Europe as well, regarded
the feat as important out of all proportion to the material aspects of
the case. The Americans first proved that the English could be beaten at
their own game on the sea. They did what the huge fleets of France,
Spain, and Holland had failed to do, and the great modern writers on
naval warfare in Continental Europe- men like Jurien de la Graviere-have
paid the same attention to these contests of frigates and sloops that
they give to whole fleet actions of other wars.
the famous ships of the Americans in this war were two named the Wasp.
The first was an eighteen--gun ship- sloop, which at the very outset of
the war captured a British brig- sloop of twenty guns, after an
engagement in which the British fought with great gallantry, but were
knocked to Pieces, while the Americans escaped comparatively unscathed.
Immediately afterward a British seventy-four captured the victor. In
memory of her the Americans gave the same name to one of the new sloops
they were building. These sloops were stoutly made, speedy vessels which
in strength and swiftness compared favorably with any ships of their
class in any other navy of the the day, for the American shipwrights
were already as famous as the American gunners and seamen. The new Wasp,
like her sister ships, carried twenty-two guns and crew of one hundred
and seventy men, and was ship-rigged. Twenty of her guns were 32-pound
carronades, while for bow-chasers she had two "long Toms." It was in the
year 1814 that the Wasp saile from the United States to prey on the
navy and commerce of Great Britain. Her commander was a gallant South
Carolinian named Captain Johnson Blakely. Her crews were nearly all
Native Americans, and were an exceptionally fine set of men. Instead of
staying near the American coasts or of sailing the high seas, the Wasp
at once headed boldly for the English Channel, to carry the war to the
very doors of the enemy.
At that time the English
fleets had destroyed the navies of every other power of Europe, and had
obtained such complete supremacy over the French that the French fleets
were kept in port. Off these ports lay the great squadrons of the
English ships of the line, never, in gale or in calm, relaxing their
watch upon the rival war-ships of the French emperor. So close was the
blockade of the French ports, and so hopeless were the French of making
headway in battle with their antagonists, that not only the great French
three-deckers and two-deckers, but their frigates and sloops as well,
lay harmless in their harbors, and the English ships patrolled the seas
unchecked in every direction. A few French privateers still slipped out
now and then, ant the far bolder and more formidable American
privateersmen drove hither and thither across the ocean in their swift
schooners and brigantines, and harried the English commerce without
The Wasp proceeded at once to cruise in the
English Channel and off the coasts of England, France, and Spain. Here
the water was traversed continually by English fleets and squadrons and
single ships of war, which were sometimes convoying detachments of
troops for Wellington's Peninsular army, sometimes guarding fleets of
merchant vessels bound homeward, and sometimes merely cruising for foes.
It was this spot, right in the teeth of the British naval power that
the Wasp chose for her cruising ground. Hither and thither she sailed
through the narrow seas, capturing and destroying the merchantmen, and
by the seamanship of her crew and the skill and vigilance of her
commander, escaping the pursuit of frigate and ship of the line. Before
she had been long on the ground, one June morning, while in chase of a
couple of merchant ships, she spied a sloop of war, the British brig
Reindeer was a weaker ship than the Wasp, her guns were lighter, and her
men fewer; but her commander, Captain Manners, was one of the most
gallant men in the splendid British navy, and he promptly took up the
gage of battle which the Wasp threw down.
The day was
calm and nearly still; only a light wind stirred across the sea. At one
o'clock the Wasp's drum beat to quarters, and the sailors and marines
gathered at their appointed posts. The drum of the Reindeer responded to
the challenge, and with her sails reduced to fighting trim, her guns
run out, and every man ready, she came down upon the Yankee ship. On her
forecastle she had rigged a light carronade, and coming up from behind,
she five times discharged this pointblank into the American sloop; then
in the light air the latter luffed round, firing her guns as they bore,
and the two ships engaged yard-arm to yard-arm. The guns leaped and
thundered as the grimy gunners hurled them out to fire and back again to
load, working like demons. For a few minutes the cannonade was
tremendous, and the men in the tops could hardly see the decks for the
wreck of flying splinters. Then the vessels ground together, and through
the open ports the rival gunners hewed, hacked, and thrust at one
another, while the black smoke curled up from between the hulls. The
English were suffering terribly. Captain Manners himself was wounded,
and realizing that he was doomed to defeat unless by some desperate
effort he could avert it, he gave the signal to board. At the call the
boarders gathered, naked to the waist, black with powder and spattered
with blood, cutlass and pistol in hand. But the Americans were ready.
Their marines were drawn up on deck, the pikemen stood behind the
bulwarks, and the officers watched, cool and alert, every movement of
the foe. Then the British sea-dogs tumbled aboard, only to perish by
shot or steel. The combatants slashed and stabbed with savage fury, and
the assailants were driven back. Manners sprang to their head to lead
them again himself, when a ball fired by one of the sailors in the
American tops crashed through his skull, and he fell, sword in hand,
with his face to the foe, dying as honorable a death as ever a brave man
died in fighting against odds for the flag of his country. As he fell
the American officers passed the word to board. With wild cheers the
fighting sailormen sprang forward, sweeping the wreck of the British
force before them, and in a minute the Reindeer was in their possession.
All of her officers, and nearly two thirds of the crew, were killed or
wounded; but they had proved themselves as skillful as they were brave,
and twenty-six of the Americans had been killed or wounded.
Wasp set fire to her prize, and after retiring to a French port to
refit, came out again to cruise. For some time she met no antagonist of
her own size with which to wage war, and she had to exercise the
sharpest vigilance to escape capture. Late one September afternoon, when
she could see ships of war all around her, she selected one which was
isolated from the others, and decided to run alongside her and try to
sink her after nightfall. Accordingly she set her sails in pursuit, and
drew steadily toward her antagonist, a big eighteen-gun brig, the Avon, a
ship more powerful than the Reindeer. The Avon kept signaling to two
other British war vessels which were in sight-one an eighteen-gun brig,
the Avon, a ship more powerful than the Reindeer. The Avon kept
signaling to two other British war vessels which were in sight-one an
eighteen-gun brig and the other a twenty-gun ship; they were so close
that the Wasp was afraid they would interfere before the combat could be
ended. Nevertheless, Blakeley persevered, and made his attack with
equal skill and daring. It was after dark when he ran alongside his
opponent, and they began forthwith to exchange furious broadsides. As
the ships plunged and wallowed in the seas, the Americans could see the
clusters of topmen in the rigging of their opponent, but they knew
nothing of the vessel's name of her force, save only so far as they felt
it. The firing was fast and furious, but the British shot with bad aim,
while the skilled American gunners hulled their opponent at almost
every discharge. In a very few minutes the Avon was in a sinking
condition, and she struck her flag and cried for quarter, having lost
forty of fifty men, while but three of the Americans had fallen. Before
the Wasp could take possession of her opponent, however, the two war
vessels to which the Avon had been signaling came up. One of them fired
at the Wasp, and as the latter could not fight two new foes, she ran off
easily before the wind. Neither of her new antagonists followed her,
devoting themselves to picking up the crew of the sinking Avon.
would be hard to find a braver feat more skillfully performed than
this; for Captain Blakeley, with hostile foes all round him, had closed
with and sunk one antagonist not greatly his inferior in force,
suffering hardly and loss himself, while two of her friends were coming
to her help.
Both before and after this the Wasp
cruised hither and thither making prizes. Once she came across a convoy
of ships bearing arms and munitions to Wellington's army, under the care
of a great two-decker. Hovering about, the swift sloop evaded the two-
decker's movements, and actually cut out and captured one of the
transports she was guarding, making her escape unharmed. Then she sailed
for the high seas. She made several other prizes, and on October 9
spoke a Swedish brig.
This was the last that was ever
heard of the gallant Wasp. She never again appeared, and no trace of any
of those aboard her was ever found. Whether she was wrecked on some
desert coast, whether she foundered in some furious gale, or what befell
her none ever knew. All that is certain is that she perished, and that
all on board her met death in some one of the myriad forms in which it
must always be faced by those who do down to the sea in ships; and when
she sank there sank one of the most gallant ships of the American navy,
with, as brave a captain and crew as ever sailed from any port of the
|USS Wasp vs HMS Avon|
Engraving of the battle by Abel Bowen
Story by Teddy Rosevelt
Click here to send Dave a private message.
|Voice of the Soldier|
This section is designed to give you a voice where you can express
opinions or give messages. We encourage you to speak out! Send us your
commentary, stories, articles, etc...
Special Operations Warrior Foundation
Special Forces Gear is now hosting a special section for the Special Operations Warrior Foundation.
Special Operations Warrior Foundation (SOWF) provides college
scholarship grants, along with financial aid and educational counseling,
to the children of Special Operations personnel who were killed in an
operational mission or training accident.
All profits from these items go to the
Special Operations Warrior Foundation
Learn More about the
Special Operations Warrior Foundation (SOWF) >>
Warrior Brotherhood Veterans Motorcycle Club
Warrior Brotherhood Veterans Motorcycle Club is a not-for-profit
(501c3) fraternal organization. It was formed to provide a fraternal
organization for qualified military veterans who have served, or are
currently serving, in the Armed Forces of the United States or US
Allied Nations. They support Veterans and Active Duty Members in
many different ways. A few of the many causes projects they
support are: mailing over 900lbs of care packages to Active Duty Service
Members Monthly to Visiting Veterans Homes to put a smile on a
Veterans Face. Please visit them at www.warriorbrotherhood.com.
All profits from these items are donated to
Warrior Brotherhood Veterans Motorcycle Club
Learn More about the Warrior Brotherhood Veterans
Motorcycle Club >>
Caring for America's Quiet Professionals
Green Beret Foundation provides unconventional resources to facilitate
the special needs of our wounded, ill and injured and imparts unique
support to the Special Forces community in order to strengthen
readiness and uphold Green Beret traditions and values.
Learn more about Green Beret Foundation>>
|New! Direct to Garment Printing.|
DTG Printing on Performance Apparel
We are excited to announce our newest advance in Direct to Garment
printing on Performance Apparel. We are now able to print direct to
moisture-wicking Polyester Garments. You can now personalize and print
your favorite design to Athletic Apparel, running shorts, under armor
and dry release apparel.
The quality of this printing is unmatched able to hold fine details and shading screen printing can't.
|Direct to Garment Printing - SpecialForces.com|
|X-47B Arrives Aboard USS Harry S Truman|
|Larry Eckhardt 'The Flagman' - CBS Sunday Morning -- 5-27-12|
|F-35B First Aerial Weapons Release|
|Word of Truth|
The Word of Truth
By Rev G.J. Rako
LTC IN USAR (Ret)
The true meaning of Christmas is described in the following poem and
booklet written by Pastor Robert B. Thieme Jr. Bob was my Pastor for
over thirty years. He was my friend, my mentor, and my source for
understanding the Christian way of life. He made the Bible come alive
and because of the grace of God and his dedication and unwavering love
of the Scripture, the Word lives in me. A gift for which I will always
be grateful and one I could never repay. Bob is now with the Lord, and
his son, R.B. Thieme III has picked up the guidon and is leading his
congregation to the high ground.
The Night Before Christmas
By Robert B. Thieme Jr.
Copyright 1994 All rights reserved First Edition published 1965. Reprinted in its entirety with permission from R.B. Thieme
Jr. Bible Ministries
'Twas the night before Christmas,
And all through the world
A message was preached,
A challenge was hurled:
Believe on the Son
And thou shall be saved!
The road to heaven with His blood
Out of darkness of sin
God's salvation, the fairest of fair,
Was born in a manger;
No room in the inn.
God in the flesh, He died for our sin.
The angels sang;
The shepherds rejoiced,
Messiah has come!
The message was voiced
By joyous believers both far and near;
Christmas has come!
Immanuel is here!
Christmas celebrates the incomparable divine gift to all mankind; the
birth of the Son of God, Jesus Christ. Two millennia ago the Savior
appeared, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world. The babe
in the manger would demolish the barrier between depraved humanity and
perfect God. He was born to die so that through Him we might have life
everlasting. Unfortunately, today Santa Claus and shopping for presents
take priority over the true meaning of Christmas. Exchanging gifts has
supplanted our focus from the greatest of all gifts. The eternal
consequence of the season is obscured. Only the Bible, God's infallible
Word and inerrant Truth, reveals the important of that first Christmas.
The Scriptures disclose a meaning far more momentous than the notions
and traditions of men, however clever or charming.
Seven truths recounted in Luke 2:7-20 illuminate the magnificent message of that first Christmas.
A night of life and death
And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes. (Luke 2;7a)
The same [Jesus Christ] was in the beginning with God...And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. (John 1:2, 14a)
Christ is the God-Man, undiminished deity and true humanity united in
one Person forever (Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 1:3). Although Christ is
eternal God, His incarnation began with His physical birth, as all human
life begins. At birth Jesus was wrapped in swaddling clothes, the
garments used to shroud the dead. From the beginning of His earthly
life, He was identified with death. The shadow of the cross loomed over
Him. In that moment, God proclaimed to the world that Christ's death is
more significant than His life.
For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (Romans 6:23)
Thirty-three years later the Lord Jesus Christ bore all our sins, past, present and future, when He died on the cross.
his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree that we, being
dead to sins, should live unto righteousness. (I Peter 2:24a)
Christmas is not Santa and his sleigh. Christmas is Christ and His cross!
A night of good news
the angel said unto them [certain shepherds], Fear not: for, behold, I
bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For
unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ
the Lord. (Luke 2:10-11)
supernatural appearance of the angel rendered these shepherds speechless
with fear and awe. But the good news announcing that salvation from God
was brought down to man promptly transformed their fear to joy.
For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men. (Titus 2:11)
A wish for a "merry Christmas" should be a wish for all to know the joy of salvation through faith in Christ.
good news concerned the savior, Christ the Lord. All humanity is under
the penalty of death; separation from God, because "all have sinned"
(Romans 3:23). The proclamation made on that first Christmas announced
the solution to sin. The advent of Christ was for the express purpose of
saving mankind from the penalty of sin.
Not only did the angel
bring the good news to the shepherds, but to all people. There is no
exception. Salvation was provided for all. Christ's substitutionary
death is an unlimited atonement.
Who gave Himself a ransom for all. (I Timothy 2:6a)
That He by the grace of God should taste death for every man. (Hebrews 2:9b)
And He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. (I John 2:2)
A night of heavenly worship
And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God. (Luke 2:13a)
first Christmas, the angels in heaven set the precedent for worshiping
and praising God. Most people have long since ignored that precedent.
True worship is based on a relationship with the Lord Jesus Christ.
Christmas, above all, should elicit a personal response to Christ and
adoration of Him. No one can enter into the true spirit of Christmas
apart from personal faith in the God-Man Savior.
And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved. (Acts 16:31)
A night of potential peace
Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (Luke 2:14)
without faith it is impossible to please Him: for he that cometh to God
must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that
diligently seek Him. (Hebrews 11:6)
Whether or not you have peace
with God depends on your attitude toward Jesus Christ. God is well
pleased only with those who believe in Jesus Christ. Only they are the
ones who have peace that cannot be purchased.
Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. (Romans 5:1)
A night of reverent seeking
shepherds said one to another, let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and
see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known
unto us. And they came with haste. (Luke 2:15b-16a)
shepherds were not ordinary shepherds, nor were the sheep ordinary
sheep. These men were carefully chosen to watch over the flocks from
which lambs without blemish were selected for Temple sacrifice. The
sacrifices foreshadowed Jesus Christ, the true Lamb of God.
as much as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as
silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from
your fathers; but with the precious blood of Christ, as a lamb without
blemish and without spot [His saving work on the cross]. (I Peter
The shepherds were well informed concerning the Old
Testament prophecy of the coming Messiah (Micah 5:2). While the angel
referred only to the "city of David," the shepherds went immediately to
Bethlehem, the predicted birthplace of the Messiah. Their prompt
response exhibited not only a knowledge of the Scripture but also faith
in God's promise. In contrast, the pious religious leaders of Israel who
attended Temple worship three times a day also knew where the Messiah
would be born (Matthew 2:4-6), but they lacked the faith to act on their
The shepherds who tended the flocks night and day
could not attend Temple worship. Yet the angel revealed the good news to
them, not to the religious leaders. Although faithful in keeping the
sheep, the shepherds now left those sacrificial lambs to witness an
event of the greatest magnitude, the newborn Lamb of God, the Savior of
all mankind. They went to Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the
sin of the world. (John 1:29b)
Is Christ more important to you
than anything you possess? The shepherds made haste to seek the Savior.
Oh, that men would make haste to seek the Savior today!
Seek ye the Lord while He may be found, call ye upon Him while He is near. (Isaiah 55:6)
Behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation. (II Corinthians 6:2b)
And Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out. (John 6:37b)
A night of witnessing
when they had seen it [Jesus in the manger}, they made known abroad the
saying which was told them concerning this child. And all they that
heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.
People were amazed and astonished when they heard that the Messiah had come. The shepherds made the salvation issue clear.
that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth
not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.
No greater joy or experience can come to the believer than to evangelize for Jesus Christ by presenting the Gospel to others.
A night of quiet meditation
But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (Luke 2:19)
today sit quietly and think intently about the Lord Jesus Christ and
His Word. Mary set the precedent that first Christmas. Will you give a
thought to the Savior this Christmas? Or will your Christmas simply be a
time of festivity, gift-giving, and excitement? From His birth day came
His death day, and through His death day comes our A night of quiet
meditation eternal life day.
For God so loved the world, that He
gave his only begotten [uniquely born] Son, that whosoever believeth in
Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16)
Doctrinal Bible Studies
doctrine is the body of teaching drawn from a literal interpretation of
the Scriptures. Doctrine serves as the standard for truth. Doctrine is
the Christian's spiritual nourishment (Matt. 4:4).
years, doctrinal Bible classes taught by R. B. Thieme Jr., have provided
daily spiritual food for his congregation. Doctrinal books like the one
above and tape recordings of his classes are available without charge
or obligation. A Doctrinal Bible Studies catalog will be provided upon
Contact Reverend Rako >>
COMBAT STRESS IN LAW ENFORCEMENT?
in law enforcement can be sudden, intense and life threatening however,
does "combat stress" exist in Law Enforcement? The stresses of combat
experienced by officers can be substantial. Commanding officers of an
officer exposed to a traumatic incident are duty bound to anticipate,
recognize and evaluate an officer's ability to perform his job when
exposed to combat stress. Command officers must first understand this
human dimension and anticipate an officer's reactions to stressful
conditions for the welfare of their officers.
must first recognize the possibility that "combat stress" even exists in
our profession. Combat stress usually is a term associated with
military veterans fighting a war. Here is a classic definition of combat
stress as provided from the Department of defense.
Stress: The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual, physical,
and/or behavioral reactions of service members who have been exposed to
stressful events in war or military operations other than war. Combat
stress reactions vary in quality and severity as a function of
operational conditions, such as intensity, duration, rules of
engagement, leadership, effective communication, unit morale, unit
cohesion, and perceived importance of the mission.
(Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, U.S. Department of Defense 2005.)
officers are exposed to dangerous situations on various levels and
duration dependent on assignment, and working conditions however, at
some point most police officers are exposed to some type of traumatic
incident. I think we can all agree that responding to a domestic call is
stressful. We have been conditioned to respond to these runs in the
highest state of situational awareness our minds will allow. It's not a
far reach that big city & suburban officers respond to unpredictable
and dangerous domestic calls every day. When we effect arrests and
resolve these situations our emotions fluctuate from a stressful peak,
which keeps our situational awareness in its clearest form, to a less
stressful and more relaxed tempo. This type of exposure to stress moving
through your emotional, intellectual, physical, and behavioral
reactions, is in my opinion, similar to the military's "combat stress"
the difference being, law enforcements exposure to combat stress isn't
on a military battlefield it can come from the many and various types of
police calls for service we deal with on a daily basis.
I am not
a medical professional nor do I profess to be an expert in any form on
this subject. However, I have spent enough time on this job, and seen
everything under the sun that cops deal with on a regular basis to
recognize the parallels that exist in how the military prepares for and
treats combat stress. This is where we as police trainers, commanding
officers and even partners can learn from our military comrades to
possibly prevent an officer from falling victim to combat stress, which
can ultimately lead to Depression and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
we all know cops are reluctant to admit they have fell victim to
stress. Men and women of law enforcement sometimes will hide and
suppress their fears, anxiety and stress which can lead to a dangerous
mindset while working the streets.
Police trainers and command
officers must thoroughly condition their officers to deal with combat
stress before incidents occur, during these stressful incidents and
after any traumatic event that your men and women respond too. Traumatic
incidents don't just apply to domestic calls that I mentioned
previously. Law enforcement responds to and deals with traumatic calls
every day. A traumatic event may include responding to a child that
drowned in a swimming pool, an infant that died in a crib while
sleeping, a CPR run on a young father as his family watches you give CPR
expecting the Super Man cop to save the man and even though you did all
you could he still dies. How many fatal accidents have you been to
where teenage girls are mangled beyond recognition? Have you ever been
assaulted on a patrol run or traffic stop? How many homicides have you
responded to or investigated? Have you ever been shot at or ambushed?
How many autopsies have you attended of not just adults but children
also? I think you get my point now, how do cops not suffer from combat
stress, if you we do this day in and day out? Why does the military have
a system in place for preventing, recognizing, and treating combat
stress and many law enforcement agencies don't?
We have all gone
home after our shifts after dealing with the previously mentioned
traumatic incidents, only to act is if nothing even happened on our tour
that day. We are expected as fathers, husbands, wife's, and citizens to
go to Johnny's soccer practice, to see a movie with a girlfriend,
attend a family BBQ and every other daily function without any emotion
or reaction to what we have just dealt with on the previous tour of
duty. The fact is many police agencies only send officers to see a
counselor or therapist only after an "officer involved shooting" or an
officer's death. Somehow we are expected to navigate through all the
other traumatic incidents as a matter of routine. That philosophy is
where we fall short in law enforcement in keeping the welfare of our
SIGNS OF COMBAT STRESS IN YOURSELF & OTHERS
are some obvious signs of stress that may help you recognize in
yourself and others so that an early detection is made in hopes of
minimizing the effects of stress.
Physical signs of stress:
- Dry mouth
- Inability to move muscles
- Inability to concentrate
Emotional signs of stress:
Signs of stress in others:
- Alcohol abuseDrug abuse
- Emotional outbursts
- Speech disorder
SIGNS OF STRESS IN POLICE UNITS
officer should be mindful that stress can affect your entire unit,
shift or precinct. That doesn't mean that your unit or officers have a
major problem it simply means that you are duty bound to attempt to
minimize the stress to ensure a productive and safe working environment.
Signs of stress in your unit:
- Excessive sick callsBickering amongst the unit or shift
- Lack of cohesion
- Failure to follow orders
- Lack of productivity
stress causes battle fatigue. Battle fatigue is the broad umbrella
label for the physical, mental and emotional signs that result naturally
from facing danger or from performing dangerous missions under
(Army Field Manual 6-22 and FM 6-22.5)
Battle fatigue is a simple condition which is not medical or a psychiatric illness.
(Army Field Manual 6-22 and FM 6-22.5)
all know that stress in officers can lead to withdrawal from society,
drug and alcohol abuse, marital problems and disciplinary issues on the
job. However, a factor that isn't often addressed among the command
staff is the fact that a stressed cop can have a negative and adverse
reaction on a dangerous call for service, which can endanger the officer
and/or his or her coworkers.
When an officer knows he or she is
being watched by peers and command officers from a high stress incident
in which they were involved, these fears and anxieties can play like a
looped film reel over and over in the officer's mind, creating fear,
anxiety and a complex. When this occurs an officer can feel as if he or
she needs to prove themselves to anybody they fear are judging them.
That's when real problems for that officer can begin.
officers have a tendency to value their peer's opinions and may
overcompensate to save their reputation. These officers under this spell
of "reputation preservation" may become heavy handed, quick to anger
and lose trust in their peers. That becomes a danger to the effected
officer, fellow cops and the general public. This stage requires
immediate attention from command officers. Supervisors must take quick
action once they observe this behavior; as a matter of fact you are duty
bound to do so and if you don't, it may be you in a civil trial
defending your lack of actions when that stressed officer does something
Cops are very similar to soldiers in
the sense that peer acceptance is vital to the officers reputation as a
good street cop. Recognize this factor and use it to your advantage when
dealing with combat stress in your officers.
patriotism, or fighting for the cause were not major factors in combat
motivation for World War II soldiers. Cohesion, or the emotional bonds
between soldiers, appeared to be the primary factor in combat
(Samuel A. Stouffer, et al., The American Soldier:
Combat and Its Aftermath, Volume II, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 1949, p. 107)
Sometimes the best medicine for a stressed
cop is "Peer support" from fellow officers and the officers command
staff. This concept is proven through military research, dating back to
World War II, as to be very effective in managing a soldier's combat
stress and motivating him to stay in combat.
~ when the
individual's immediate group, and its supporting formations, met his
basic organic needs, offered him affection and esteem from both officers
and comrades, supplied him with a sense of power and adequately
regulated his relations with authority, the element of self-concern in
battle, which would lead to disruption of the effective functioning of
his primary group, was minimized.
(Edward A. Shils and Morris
Janowitz, "Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War
II," Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 12, Summer 1948, p. 28)
PREVENTION IS KEY
military has some effect countermeasures to confront combat stress and
to reduce psychological breakdown in combat which can be very useful in
law enforcement. These countermeasures that apply to law enforcement
Admit that fear exists when in combat.
Ensure communication lines are open between leaders and subordinates.
Do not assume unnecessary risks.
Provide good, caring leadership.
(Army Field Manual 6-22 and FM 6-22.5)
command officers can reduce stress by leading by inspiration and not
intimidation, recognize and initiate stress management programs, provide
positive feedback that is real and not hot air.
During my career
it has been taboo to speak with an officer that is under stress from a
traumatic incident. I have no idea how or where this concept started but
the trend in law enforcement has been for some time now to have
officers participate in critical stress debriefs with their fellow
comrades that were involved in a traumatic incident, under the watchful
eye of a licensed practioner. That is a great practice but most often
departments only do that for officer involved shootings and the death of
an officer. This is where good trainers and great commanders can
separate themselves from the rest. Combat stress, in my military and law
enforcement experience applies to the many stressful situations that I
mentioned previously. The Army requires their field commanders to
participate in the soldiers stress management and we in law enforcement
need to do the same and stop the mind set of looking the other way and
not engaging the officer. We can only stand to improve our profession if
we adapt the military command priority of "the troops come first"
philosophy instead of a operating as a civilian style of management.
training rookie swat cops I can at times see the fear in some officers.
This is a critical point for that officers swat career. I will pull
that officer to the side and look him straight in the eye, and tell him
that the fear he is feeling is normal, and we all have it, and what
makes a great swat cop is his ability to harness that fear and use its
energy to dial in his situational awareness, placing him on top of the
tactical bubble. Most often that little speech will reduce the anxiety
and stress and the officers confidence will soar.
Here are some
tips to help manage combat stress in situations that are "routine" (hate
that term), less critical or where department policies normally require
a visit to the department's mental health physician:
yourself with your officers welfare Instill confidence in your officers
abilities and work performance Ensure your officer is getting plenty of
sleep and rest Learn the signs of stress in yourself and your officers
Be mindful of external factors such as marital problems Train your
officers to cope with combat stress Teach your officers to recognize
combat stress Ensure that your officers face combat stress and not to
HAVE NO FEAR
Providing realistic stressful
training will help your officer's inner strength to face fear during
combat situations with the will to persevere. Be mindful that training
can't totally prepare your officers for combat stress so be prepared to
take official action when needed as your department policy mandates.
a police commander try not to look at yourself as a civilian supervisor
whom is always looking at performance but as a "leader of men and
women". Develop the attitude that "the troops come first".
commanders and police trainers recognize that fear is overcome by
understanding the situation and acting with foresight and purpose to
overcome it. Strong leaders will gain their officers trust and loyalty
when it's obvious to the officers that their commander is truly
concerned for their welfare. Once the commander gains this trust and
loyalty then he or she will be successful in reducing fears and
ultimately reducing combat stress.
Sgt. Glenn French
About the author
Glenn French, a Sergeant with the Sterling Heights (Mich.) Police
Department, has 22 years police experience and currently serves as the
Team Commander for the Special Response Team, and Sergeant of the
Sterling Heights Police Department Training Bureau. He has 14 years SWAT
experience and served as a Sniper Team Leader, REACT Team Leader, and
He is the author of the award-winning book "Police Tactical Life Saver"
which has been named the 2012 Public Safety Writers Association
Technical Manual of the year. Glenn is also the President of
Glenn has instructed basic and advanced SWAT / Tactical officer
courses, basic and advanced Sniper courses, Cold Weather / Winter
Sniper Operations and Active Shooter Response courses, Tactical
Lifesaver Course and others. Sgt French served in the U.S. Army. During
his military tenure Sgt French gained valuable experience in C.Q.B.,
infantry tactics and explosive breaching operations.
|Survival and Disaster Preparedness|
The Three B's of Preparedness
Well, the election is over and it's become apparent that our Nation
is continuing down a slippery slope. With all of the legislation and
rhetoric being espoused from D.C. regarding gun control, ammo taxes,
healthcare and the much vaunted secession debate which is continually
spun and re-spun by the media; Mr. John Public is fed a steady stream of
ilk which cements him in apathy. Mr. Public doesn't know what to do or
believe because he's not a doer, nor is he self-motivated, but one that
believes everything will pan out as long as he continues to rely on the
institutions which made this Nation what it is today. If he encounters
difficulty in life, he simply reports to the local welfare office for
his monthly ration. Should he become ill, he simply needs to report to
the local Medicaid office where he will be assigned a doctor and cared
for. And, when he is one day unable to find stable employment, he simply
reports to the FEMA Camp where work will be assigned and his basic
needs met and his protection assured by the armed FEMA Youth Corp from
the civil uprising that is outside the gates.
However I and I
pray you dear reader, am a doer. We have seen the writing on the
proverbial wall for some years now and daily things escalate- A super
storm in the North East, an earthquake in Eastern Kentucky and in the
Middle East Israel has decided to start assassinating its enemies
without "international" approval. If you have not been prepping for a
while now, YOU'RE ALREADY BEHIND! Preparedness isn't something that is a
passing fad or an idea that can be thrown together on a whim. True
preparedness isn't having enough on hand for a few days during a storm;
true preparedness is a lifestyle... Something you live and DO daily.
With that in mind, I have broken down this lifestyle into three
categories called the "3 B's"- they're easy to remember and should you
prep these items alone in abundance and in redundancy you will not only
have the very core of your long term survival needs, but trade items
which can be utilized as currency when there's none to be had. The three B's are:BEANS:
Beans doesn't only stand for the wonderful things that make chili extra
filling and our rear ends extra noisy, but food in general. Obviously
you will want to eat should you be forced into a long term situation of
self-reliance. If you believe that you will be able to live on wild
edibles and wild game; you're incredibly misinformed. You will not be
able to harvest enough from the wild to be completely self- reliant and
in all likelihood not enough to survive just one harsh winter. Thus, you
MUST supplement your wild edibles and gardening and canning with store
bought canned foods, MRE's, Freeze Dried and Dehydrated food stuffs.
Taking into consideration your shelter and mobility options, you may be
able to have one large cache of food or several within a specified area.
Regardless of the scenario, compile primarily foods, drinks mixes and
yes, even liquor such as whiskey or vodka, which you consume on a
regular basis NOW so that your palate is not forced to greatly adjust to
"survival food". If you hate Spam- don't stock it in abundance! Use it
for trade... Liquors like Vodka can be used as trade, antiseptic, poison
ivy relief, a laundry freshener, insect repellant, mold killer, and to
treat ear aches to name only a few!BULLETS:
Bullets obviously means ammo but I also lump knives and other tool items
in this category. Stock up on common ammunition NOW. We all hear the
rhetoric and it's only a matter of time before they tax the ammo so much
we cannot afford it. Look at the Cook County Illinois (Chicago) with
their proposed "violence tax" of $0.25 per bullet sold! So that box of
50 .22 rounds will now cost you a whopping $22.50 instead of the current
$10.00 (approx. for Federal ammo at Sportsman's Guide). What is common
ammunition? Well, it's not .223... Think 12 gauge, 22 long and 9mm-
these are the guns you need on hand for your family and the ammo you
need to stock FIRST in abundance because it's cheaper, easier to obtain
now and it will be the most common you'll find should your neighborhood
be taken to a FEMA camp... Some will argue that they need to grab up
their .223 or 7.63x39 or 54 because the others are more common and while
that rings true, the others build up faster. I mean how many .22 do you
really need? You can get a box of 500 Blazer rounds for $17- stock up
5000 rounds and you're probably set for your .22 supply for some years
to come. Do the same with your 12 gauge which is $23 for 100 rounds of
target or bird shot at Wal-Mart. Remember; the common ammo is for small
game hunting and bandit protection. You need the other goodies for the
occasional big game, holding off marauders, zombies, Blue Hats, etc.
Another thought to consider is picking up some barrel adapter for a 12
gauge single shot such as a New England Arms Pardner or H& R single
shot. You can pick these weapons up for around $50-$60 at most pawn
stores, they last forever, you can clean them easily in the field and
with a small investment of $110 you could shoot 410/45LC, 9mm and .22
through your shotgun! See www.gunadapters.com for other options...
as I mentioned are also lumped here because everyone needs a good knife
for skinning game, doing chores or self-defense. Choose a solid fixed
blade and select one that you can stake your life on. Too often people
believe they can enter a survival situation with a cheap China made
knife from a flea market only to have it break the first time the baton a
branch with it. For me, my knife is one of the most expensive items I
carry, often costing as much or more than my guns! I go for carbon
steel, fixed blade that can just as easily be used for self-defense as
they can for common woods chores. I like the Becker BK2 and Habilis
Bushtool. But there are many other fine knives that can accomplish the
same things. Shop around for the best deal, check eBay, find a trading
site such as Bushcraft Trading Post on Facebook- I have upgraded most of
my equipment by trading within this group and have a back up knife such
as a folder or smaller fixed blade for carving or skinning tasks. Mora
Knives are great little knives that can easily be re-handled when the
plastic handle breaks, and they're cheap. Condor Knives also offer good
quality products for a fair price. Cold Steel used to be nice and their
high end models still are, but they're priced out of the common mans
market. There's no reason to have to spend over $200 on a good knife...
That said, cheap knives have their place in your barter bin. Keep lots
around as beaters and for trade with other like-minded folks along the
Band-Aids stands for all your
medical & hygiene supplies. You need bandages, gauze rollers, 4x4
pads, tampons, soap, and toilet tissue, sutures, anti septic ointments,
antibiotics galore and whatever prescriptions you rely on. If you wear
glasses, have several pairs available in hard cases. Stock up on common
antibiotics and refill whatever prescriptions you're given as often as
you can and just keep the meds stocked back because they most likely
don't expire. There are over 122 types of commonly prescribed medicines
that don't go bad, some even after 40 years of storage according to a
recent FDA press release. Things that do expire are Aspirin and Tylenol,
but they will still go at least 5 years according to the same FDA
study! And you can get 140 tablets of 325mg Aspirin at your local Dollar
Tree for yes, $1 that is made in the USA!
Additionally, get some
basic medical training. A class in Wilderness First Aid will greatly
enhance your ability to field treat common problems and learn to
improvise when you lack proper medical equipment. Get books- REAL BOOKS,
not ebooks on field medicine. When and if the power grid fails, ebooks
are worthless. If you're near Kentucky and want to get some training in
Wilderness/Disaster Medicine, check out my website as we offer classes
on a regular basis.
I realize that it's difficult to store
everything you need for 1, 2 or more years and in reality, you can't do
it due to variables that cannot be foreseen or taken into account.
However, you can at least prepare enough essentials to greatly affect
your survivability over a long period by simply prepping the 3 B's.
And always remember- Hope for the best, prep for the worst...
|About the author: |
is the President of Frontier Christian University a school that equips
people in Biblical survival and preparedness ministries and he's the
Chief Instructor at Hunt Survival, Inc. a survival & preparedness
training company. He's also the author of The Tribulation Survival
Effective Delegation Saves Time, yet Initially it Requires Time
- Delegation is the process of entrusting a task or a part of a task to others.
what cannot be delegated - make sure you properly assess the task and
the level of competency, confidentiality, and commitment required to
complete the given task SUCCESSFULLY. Do not put yourself or any of
your Team in a position where they cannot succeed. Remember: Failure
can be successful if learning occurs.
- Granting Authority: you
can delegate authority, however you cannot delegate responsibility.
When you delegate a task, it is important to remember this: in the eyes
of YOUR Manager, ultimately you are still responsible for the
successful completion of all tasks delegated to you, INCLUDING the
tasks that you delegate to others.
- Creates an Obligation:
delegation creates an obligation for both of you-to each other. This
mutual obligation, granting authority and entrusting a task are like a
three-legged stool. Each depends on the others to support the whole. No
one can stand alone.
Deterrents to Delegation
1. Why don't I delegate better ?
- "I can do it better myself." -Yes, AND you can't do it ALL
better yourself. For most of us, there is too much to do and too little
time to do it. Take the time to develop others. Someday they may be
sitting in your seat.
- "I can't trust others to do it as well."
-Trust is reciprocal. You get what you give. As a leader you may have
to take the first step towards building trust with your team.
Delegating a task to someone shows that you trust them to handle the
responsibility and you believe in their abilities.
- "I am
reluctant to take the risk they'll fail." -Taking risk is a part of a
leader's job. If you're not taking risks and making mistakes you're
probably not leading much. Remember, leaders operate where things are
being done for the first time, where there is no road map. You're bound
to take a wrong turn. We all make mistakes - recover and move on.
don't have time to involve others." -Then make time. It may cost you
time upfront, however, the long term investment ensures a solid
foundation of informed, trained, and competent team members/associates.
feel my team members resent when I follow up on their work."
-Following up is done out of RESPECT for them and their work. Because
you RESPECT and APPRECIATE your team members and the contributions they
make, it is your job as a leader to confirm how much value they add.
Additionally, follow up will help you and your team members decide where
the learning opportunities are simply by conducting brief After Action
Review (AAR) or "lessons learned."
- "I can't bring myself to
delegate 'busy work'." - Busy work is a part of any organization and
any job function. If they are going to be standing in your shoes
eventually, let's make sure they understand up front just how they fit
and what comes with the fancy laces.
- "I can't delegate to my
friends." - It's hard to separate work from fun, family from friends,
and team members from friends. Oh, well. That's just part of being a
leader. Get used to it. There is no easy way out for a leader. Keep the
communication open and treat others with dignity and respect. FRIENDS
- "Everyone is already busy." - THAT'S AN
EXCUSE! So are you! Try to identify areas where consolidation may be
appropriate. We're all busy all the time. It's like the weather: Accept
it or move.
2. Why team members resist delegation ?
- They don't know how to do the task. -Based on the priorities you
set and the "NLT" (No Later Than) completion time of the task you or
your Customers establish, make time to train others how to complete
tasks essential to your organization's success. The more value they add,
the more valuable they are to you, the team, and the organization.
Remember, people make the difference, they are you only true, long-term
- They have a fear of failure, of
criticism of mistakes. - Coach them through the learning curve.
Reassure them that mistakes are learning opportunities and that
criticism (feedback) is a gift when presented properly.
lack confidence in their abilities. - I can't think of a better way to
build their confidence than to delegate to them and give them the
opportunity to succeed and add value. Enough said.
- They don't
understand what is expected. - Remember we all have different "input"
channels and "sorting" styles. Remember, everyone interprets things
differently. To some a BOW adorns a package, to others it is a part of a
ship. Be Clear. Don't make assumptions. Ask them to paraphrase until
you're certain the expectations are mutually understood.
don't have time. - Neither do you! You don't have time to waste getting
team members up the learning curve either. Task organization and time
management are essential to mission success. Delegation provides a
learning opportunity for everyone. Problems will always exist and can
be found everywhere. At any time anyone on your team may need to assume
the leadership role and complete the task. Delegation helps prepare
others so no time is lost when roles must change quickly.
- They don't like doing it. - SO! We all must do things we don't like to do. It's a part of life, get used to it.
feel inadequate. - WHY ? This sounds like an opportunity to practice
good listening skills. Sit down with them and find out "why", then
develop a plan to coach them through their insecurities.
- They already feel overworked. - I know, so do I, empathize don't sympathize.
done it before. - Great! Then maybe they can do it better again, OR,
maybe they can teach someone else how they do it and hone their
- They find it easier to ask than to decide. -
At some point they need to learn how to make decisions. Easy isn't a
good enough reason to resist. A path with no obstacles would probably
lead nowhere and is well traveled. Each of us has a personal
responsibility to learn and grow as much as we can. To choose not to do
something because it is difficult or challenging is simple laziness
and you are depriving yourself of a learning opportunity.
don't possess the proper attitude. - WHY ? As a leader you need to go
find out. It's your job. Don't keep stragglers on the team. Be sure you
are doing everything possible to redirect their attitude through
feedback and coaching. If you have confidently expended all means then
you must trust that they are in control of their own behavior. You may
correct the attitude through communication and you may not and you may
have to cut your losses at some point and move on. It's a part of being
How can I Delegate Better ?
- Trust the abilities of your team members. -By working with your
team, practicing the Four Factors of Leadership, and through experience
your ability to assess others will improve. Listen to your gut. Often
it is the only choice you have.
- Respect your team members as
people. - That's right. PEOPLE not machines. They have feelings,
emotions, and problems; Beliefs, Values, and Norms just like you. Don't
- Keep an "Open Mind!" - The ability to remain
"open" about others' ideas and contributions is essential for
leadership. It is extremely hard to do as we tend to view the world
through our eyes and our experiences. Remember leadership exists in the
unknown. Keep an open mind and keep learning.
- Understand that
mistakes will be made. - Cool! First time mistakes are learning
opportunities. Be sure to debrief with subordinates when mistakes
occur. A mistake the second time is your learning opportunity: You
didn't prepare / train them enough after the first mistake occurred.
- Effective delegation saves time AND initially requires time:
YOUR TIME! It's a long term investment for you, your team, your
Customers, and your organization.
- Delegation is not a shortcut
to avoiding responsibility. You can delegate authority but you can't
delegate responsibility. Delegation saves time through task
organization/distribution and by teaming up problem solvers with the
appropriate skills to solve them efficiently.
- Don't waste valuable time. You can never regain lost time. NEVER!
the right "Climate." The right climate is one that promotes successful
behaviors and stimulates growth. Be approachable and be sure to
approach your team members with the intent of helping them be
successful. If you help others succeed, in turn, you too will be
- Follow the basic steps of delegating.
- Assess the task.
- Consider the Four Factors of Leadership: The Led, The Leader, The Situation, Communications.
- Consider the confidentiality, competency, and commitment required of the individual or team.
- Provide leadership essentials: Purpose, Direction, and Motivation.
- Clearly state the Task, Conditions (resources), and Standards (outcomes).
- Be accessible for help.
- Follow up and give feedback: Reinforce what you want more of and redirect what you want less of.
you do the whole thing yourself, you are ensuring that the next time
you will have no choice but to do it again since no one else learned
Select a Task for Delegation and use this Outline:
- Identify the task and asses it. Evaluate the skills required.
- Consider the Four Factors of Leadership. How do they apply to this task ?
- Consider the competence and commitment of team members. - select a person or persons to complete the task.
- Identify and provide:
- Purpose - Why are we doing it ?
- Direction - Where to begin; orientation of tasks.
- Motivation - Fuel for the fire.
- Identify and clearly state:
- Task - What is to be completed or accomplished.
- Conditions-resources available for this task.
- Standards-Minimum results expected.
- Be accessible for help. Inquire about progress. Spot-check along the way.
- Was the task completed successfully according to criteria ?
- If no, identify reasons why-conduct AAR.
- How can you turn failure into a successful learning experience for both of you ?
- What feedback will you provide from this process ?
- Reinforce ?
- Redirection ?
About the author: Dean Hohl
has been leading teams and coaching individuals professionally since
1993. From '88 - '92 Dean served with 3rd Ranger Battalion during which
he helped in the removal of Manuel Noriega in 1989 when he parachuted
onto a hostile Panamanian airstrip.
graduated Ranger School with honors earning one of two distinguished
"Merrill's Marauders" awards; an award earned only by two each class and
chosen by his peer group for demonstrating exceptional teamwork,
leadership, and communication under long periods of stress and pressure
- often the result of days without food or sleep - throughout the
entire 72 day course. Dean completed his Ranger service with honor at
the rank of Sergeant.
Sun Tzu's The Art of War
Decision Releases Force
Energy may be likened to the bending of a cross-bow; decision, to the releasing of the trigger.
Amid the turmoil and
tumult of battle, there may be seeming disorder
and yet no real disorder at all. Amid confusion and
chaos, your array may be without apparent head or tail, yet
it will be proof against defeat.
postulates perfect discipline; simulated fear
postulates courage; simulated weakness postulates strength.
Hiding order beneath
the cloak of disorder is simply a question of
subdivision; concealing courage under a show of timidity
presupposes a fund of latent energy; masking strength with
weakness is to be effected by tactical dispositions.
Thus one who is
skillful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains
deceitful appearances, according to which the enemy will
By holding out baits,
he keeps him on the march; then with a body of
picked men he lies in wait for him.
The clever combatant
looks to the effect of combined energy, and does
not require too much from individuals. Hence, his
ability to pick out the right men and to utilize combined
When he utilizes
combined energy, his fighting men become as it were
like unto rolling logs or stones. For it is the
nature of a log or stone to remain motionless on level
ground, and to move when on a slope; if four cornered, to
come to a standstill, but if round-shaped to go
Thus the energy
developed by good fighting men is as the momentum of a
round stone rolled down a mountain thousands of
feet in height. So much on the subject of energy.
THE GOAT AND THE GOATHERD
Goatherd had sought to bring back a stray goat
to his flock. He whistled and sounded his horn in vain;
the straggler paid no attention to the summons. At last the
Goatherd threw a stone, and breaking its horn,
begged the Goat not to tell his master. The Goat
replied, "Why, you silly fellow, the horn will speak though
I be silent."
Do not attempt to hide things which cannot be hid.
|Quotes & Jokes|
We must all choose a side from which we will defend or destroy what
this nation was set out to achieve. The Constitution and the Bill of
Rights was not written to harm us, nor was it written to be
double-minded. It was written to bring us all a freedom of spirit
and a life of integrity within that freedom. I share with you just
three quotes from Noah Webster, one of the lesser-known of the
freedom fighters. There was strength of character in this man, which
shows forth in his writings. Let this strength of character bring
out a thoughtfulness and wakefulness of the dangers we are facing
today, and I urge you to stay strong and steadfast in your fight
against the tyranny we are fighting now. When history is buried and
ignored it is repeated: Stand firm and let that not be said of our
- BornOctober 16, 1758
- DiedMay 28, 1843
Noah Webster: When a citizen gives his suffrage to a
man of known immorality he abuses his trust; he sacrifices not only
his own interest, but that of his neighbor; he betrays the interest
of his country.
Remembering where they came from, Noah
Webster has this to say: The ecclesiastical establishments of Europe
which serve to support
tyrannical governments are not the Christian religion but abuses and
corruptions of it.
Concerning where our liberties came from: It is the sincere desire
of the writer that our citizens should early understand that the
genuine source of correct republican principles is the bible,
particularly the New Testament or the Christian religion.
Remember these things when people call you names and seek to refute
your righteous stand for our Republic. There has been no greater
nation upon this earth that was ever set forth with the integrity
and foresight that America was founded and built upon.
fight is not over until the last lie is defeated. Stand strong
citizens of America against all tyranny. Our forefathers fought and
died for our freedom: Many have fathers, brothers, loved ones and
friends who have done the same. Let not the powers that be tread on
and destroy our freedom now. Fight the good fight of faith, justice
and righteousness that our children might also live in peace under
FREEDOM, which comes from God alone.
of power in government is a military force. But this, to be efficient,
must be superior to any force that exists among the people, or which
they can command; for otherwise this force would be annihilated, on the
first exercise of acts of oppression. Before a standing army can rule,
the people must be disarmed; as they are in almost every kingdom in
Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the
sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a
force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any
pretense, raised in the United States. A military force, at the command
of Congress, can execute no laws, but such as the people perceive to be
just and constitutional; for they will possess the power, and jealousy
will instantly inspire the inclination, to resist the execution of a law
which appears to them unjust and oppressive.
selecting men for office, let principle be your guide. Regard not the
particular sect or denomination of the candidate -- look at his
character. It is alleged by men of loose principles, or defective views
of the subject, that religion and morality are not necessary or
important qualifications for political stations. But the scriptures
teach a different doctrine. They direct that rulers should be men who
rule in the fear of God, men of truth, hating covetousness. It is to the
neglect of this rule that we must ascribe the multiplied frauds,
breaches of trust, speculations and embezzlements of public property
which astonish even ourselves; which tarnish the character of our
country and which disgrace our government. When a citizen gives his vote
to a man of known immorality, he abuses his civic responsibility; he
not only sacrifices his own responsibility; he sacrifices not only his
own interest, but that of his neighbor; he betrays the interest of his
what is tyranny? Or how can a free people be deprived of their
liberties? Tyranny is the exercise of some power over a man, which is
not warranted by law, or necessary for the public safety. A people can
never be deprived of their liberties, while they retain in their own
hands, a power sufficient to any other power in the state.
you become entitled to exercise the right of voting for public
officers, let it be impressed on your mind that God commands you to
choose for rulers, 'just men who will rule in the fear of God.' The
preservation of [our] government depends on the faithful discharge of
this Duty; if the citizens neglect their Duty and place unprincipled men
in office, the government will soon be corrupted; laws will be made,
not for the public good so much as for selfish or local purposes;
corrupt or incompetent men will be appointed to execute the Laws; the
public revenues will be squandered on unworthy men; and the rights of
the citizen will be violated or disregarded. If [our] government fails
to secure public prosperity and happiness, it must be because the
citizens neglect the Divine Commands, and elect bad men to make and
administer the Laws.
not include a provision that everybody shall, in good weather, hunt on
his own land and catch fish in rivers that are public property and that
Congress shall never restrain any inhabitant of America from eating and
drinking, at seasonable times, or prevent his lying on his left side, in
a long winter's night, or even on his back, when he is fatigued by
lying on his right.
a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed as they are in
almost every kingdom in Europe. The supreme power in America cannot
enforce unjust laws by the sword because the whole body of the people
are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops
that can be, on any pretense, raised in the United States.
moral principles and precepts contained in the Scripture ought to form
the basis of all our civil constitutions and laws. All the miseries and
evil men suffer from vice, crime, ambition, injustice, oppression,
slavery, and war, proceed from their despising or neglecting the
precepts contained in the Bible.
|Featured Tactical Gear|
Advanced Tactical Seat Caddy
- 20" H x 12" W x 7" D
- Water-resistant 1050-denier nylon
- Flexible main storage compartments
- Internal dividers
- Compression straps
- Hydration pocket
- Fleece lined eye wear pocket
- Sternum straps
- Molle-compatible webbing on front and sides
- Elastic keeper for strap ends
- Name tape and flag holder
- YKK zippers
- Three colors; Black, Flat Dark Earth and Tac OD
Sized for a twenty-four hour excursion, the RUSH 24™ Backpacks are
loaded with the features operators need and want. Designed by special
operations combat veteran, Kyle Lamb of VTAC™, these backpacks come with
two large compartments and a compression strap system that allows
expandability depending upon how much gear you carry. The front section
of the pack includes an organizer; a separate zippered compartment, a
key fob and radio/magazine pockets with hook and loop straps. The main
compartment has three mesh zippered pockets and a separate large cinch
pocket. There are two full-length side pockets that can handle a variety
of different items including water bottles. The top of the backpacks
has a separate fleece lined eyeglass pocket and 2 smaller external
zippered gear pocket. We've added molle-compatible webbing to the front
and side of the pack, allowing you to attach a host of different 5.11's
SlickStick™ accessory. We've also included a reinforced hydration
pocket that allows you to add a hydration bladder for immediate access
to water. We finished the pack off with a heavy-duty, nylon carry
handle at the top.
Constructed of water-resistant 1050-denier nylon, the RUSH 24™Backpacks
are built to last. We use quality YKK zippers throughout and our
high-impact plastic clips remain stable in all temperatures. We've
added elastic keepers to secure the ends of all straps. Once you've got
the pack adjusted to your size, you'll be able to secure the ends of
all straps with these elastic keepers.
5.11 Tactical has joined forces with Special Operations Combat Veteran
(RET) Kyle E. Lamb. He served his country for 21 years, 17 of which
were with the most elite elements of the U.S. Army Special Operations
Command. He has been decorated for valor in Mogadishu, Somalia, during
the battle that was made famous by the movie Blackhawk Down. He was also
decorated for valor during Operation Iraqi Freedom. SGM Lamb is one of
the most credible and sought-after shooting and tactics instructors in
the country. The owner of Viking Tactic, Inc. (VTAC™), and the
inventor of the Viking Tactics Sling, his master-level expertise comes
directly from real-world experience.
This carrier features our SlickStick™ molle-attachment system.
Slickstick™ pouches are compatible with standard molle attachment
systems, yet functions like none other. The Slickstick™ slides through a
UV-resistant ring making it easier to arrange and attach your pouches
and other gear. Slickstick attaches like a normal molle attachment, but
it slides to make it easier. To remove an item, just pop the snap and
pull the stick out.
The RUSH 24 Backpacks are high-end backpacks with a low-end price. The
variety of features along with the practical design makes this a
superior value. We are proud to have partnered with Kyle Lamb to provide
such a full-featured pack at such a great price.
Click Here to View Item >>
Tactical Backpack Kit
The standard for most breaching operations, the Tactical Backpack Kit
features the following:
- BOLTMASTER BOLT CUTTER™
- SPECIAL OPERATIONS HALLAGAN TOOL™
- MANUAL ENTRY TOOL PACK™
Click Here to View Item and Full Specifications >>
Our Tactical Mask
is designed to fit 96% of the world's population and can be used for
Paintball, AirSoft, Law Enforcement and Military training. Some people
use it for Jet Ski's, ATV's, UTV's, Snow Boarding and Snow Skiing. Some
people use it under their helmets or Skid Lids while riding
motorcycles (they take the forehead protector off and it fits under
most 1/2 helmets and Skid Lids). Whatever your use is, U R gonna LUV
- Comes with Clear Thermal Lens
- Protective high gloss clear coat
- Tough, durable plastic
- Interchangeable polycarbonate lens with military grade AF+AS+UV coatings
- Open Cell foam
- Adjustable strap with Sure Grip Technology
- Does NOT include stuff sack (sold separately)
- 30 day limited manufacturer's warranty
Click Here to View Item and Full Specifications >>
OLIVE DRAB 7 X 50 BINOCULARS
- WATERPROOF & FOGPROOF
- BUILT IN COMPASS
- O-RING SEALED & NITROGEN FILLED
- RANGE FINDING RETICLE
- ILLUMINATION READING
- SPEEDY RANGE FINDING DIAL
- MULTI -COATED LENS
- POWER - 7X
- OBJ. DIA: 50MM
- EXIT PUPIL: 6.8MM
- EYE RELIEF: 22MM
- FIELD OF VIEW: 132M/1000M
- NEAR FOCUS: 8.6MM
- DIMENSION: 210 X 170 X 80MM
- INCLUDES CASE MADE OF 320D BLACK NYLON POUCH, INSTRUCTIONS, CLEANING CLOTH AND YELLOW FLOATING CLOTH
Short Black on Black Ka-Bar
Nomad 27 Solar Panel
- Universal Design: Fits most common military and L.E. service pistols includ ing; Beretta M9, Sig M11, 1911, & Glock.
- Low Profile: The four point harness effectively distributes the weight of pistol and spare mags without adding unnecessary bulk.
On & Off: The specially designed "yoke" and easily adjustable
four-point harness system keeps the holster from twisting and speeds
donning. The double release on the front allows the holster to be
- Ambidextrous: The SPEC.-OPS. Brand Shoulder
Holster can be set-up for a right or left handed shooter in a matter of
seconds. No special adapters or hardware are required.
- Safe: The
"Tanker" style orientation of the holster body leaves the pistol
pointed in a safe direction and makes drawing fast and smooth. No more
worries about "flagging" the folks standing behind you.
- Collect 27 watts of power from the sun
- Store power with the Sherpa 120 power pack for use anytime
- Charges the Sherpa 120 power pack in 6 - 10 hours from the sun.
- Small, lightweight, foldable soft case for convenient carrying
- Built in pocket to store connector cord
- Weather resistant
What's in the Box Features
space is tight and every ounce counts, the Nomad 27M packs the perfect
power source. Using 27-watts of highly efficient mono-crystalline
solar technology, its eight small panels provide plenty of power and
conveniently fold into a small, lightweight portable case.|
whether you're backpacking, hiking, biking, snowshoeing or more, you
can easily pack and carry your solar energy - compatible with all of
your Elite gear.|
1 x Nomad 27 watt solar array
3 x aluminum stiffening rods
on Black K-BAR with black sheath. This has risen to the best seller
list at KA-BAR so we decided it should be available to our clients. The
blade is crafted from rigid 1095 tool steel, making it one of the
toughest knife blades out there.
Blade Length: 5 - 1/4"
Overall Length: 9 - 1/4"
|AquaForce LED Light |
Stainless Steel Metal Back
Luminous Hour Markers
50M Water Resistant
Two Year Warranty
24Hr Military Time
|What Has Really Changed?|
What Has Really Changed?
"Yankees go home!"
these Yankees, who saved the very nations now
screaming this contemptible demand-these Yankees whose
country's gold rebuilt those nations...these Yankees
can't go home.
World's most sophisticated and powerful nuclear submarine
Carries dozens of cruise missiles capable of hitting targets 1,200 miles away
Her sonar can detect vessels moving on the other side of the ocean
Powerful nuclear reactor allows her to cruise non-stop for 25 years
HMS Ambush is so hi-tech the giant submarine doesn't even need a periscope
By Sam Adams
PUBLISHED: 08:59 GMT, 14 September 2012 | UPDATED: 12:59 GMT, 14 September 201
She cost around 1billion to build, has sonar so sensitive it
can hear other vessels 3,000 miles away and carries a giant payload of
38 deadly Tomahawk cruise missiles. HMS Ambush, the Royal Navy's
newest nuclear attack submarine, is one of the most sophisticated and
powerful vessels of her type ever built. The giant Astute-class sub,
which was launched today, is so hi-tech she doesn't even need a
Scroll down to watch the submarine's weapons being tested...
built by BAE
Systems, is believed
to be the
The super hi-tech vessel has undergone rigorous testing ahead of
today's launch. Despite her size the sub's 103 crew will be tightly
packed, with some sleeping up to eight to a room in bunk beds.
crew instead using a digital camera system to see above the surface
when she is submerged. Built by BAE Systems, she has enough nuclear
fuel to carry on cruising for up to 25 years non-stop - giving her huge
tactical flexibility. Her nuclear reactor is so powerful her range is
only really limited by the need for maintenance and resupply.
Astute-class submarines are the largest, most advanced and most
powerful in the history of the Navy, boasting world-class design,
weaponry and versatility. HMS Ambush can travel over 500 miles in a
day, allowing them to be deployed anywhere in the world within two
weeks. The vessel is also one of
the quietest sea-going vessels built, capable of sneaking along an
enemy coastline to drop off special forces or tracking a boat for
HMS Ambush was fitted out with her sophisticated technology at
Devonshire dock hall in Barrow-in-Furness Cumbria. She contains some of
the most hi-tech weapons and sonar systems ever created
Inside: The weapons room of the 1billion sub. Many details of her weapons system remain top secret
Ambush: Her powerful nuclear reactor allows her to travel around the
world without stopping. She can cruise for up to 500 miles in a day
Foreign forces will find it almost impossible to sneak up undetected
by her incredibly powerful sonar equipment that can hear halfway around
the world. Her Tomahawk missiles are capable of hitting targets up to
1,200 miles away - making her a vital weapon for Britain's armed
forces. The sub's commander Peter Green, 47, said the vessel's
capabilities are 'unparalleled.''This sub is a huge step forward in
underwater operations,' he told the Daily Mirror
. Her listening ability is quite awesome. She has a sonar system with the processing power of 2,000 laptop computers.
Feeding the crew: The submarine's kitchen will be staffed by five chefs providing food 24-hours a day for her officers and crew
Technology: Leading engineering technician Andrew Gee tests out the sub's steering system in the control room
'It is possible this class of submarine is the most advanced in the world.'
Astute Class sub is currently undergoing sea trials €" and could be
operational within a year. Many details of HMS Ambush's weapons systems
cannot be revealed for security reasons. Most of her 103-strong crew
live in bunk-beds measuring two metres by one metre, with up to 18
submariners sharing one room. After today's launch HMS Ambush will begin
sea trials before eventually beginning operations.
Marine Air: Modernizing Before the Storm
JSF F-35B test aircraft BF-02
during a low speed tower flyby with its gear up, Jan. 31, 2012, piloted
by Peter Wilson. Lockheed Martin photo
Marines are getting new strike fighters, medium-lift tilt-rotors,
attack and utility helicopters, and turboprop tanker-transports in
advance of sequestered budget cuts or more measured economies across
the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Some of those
new aircraft have already changed the way Marines fly and fight in
Operation Enduring Freedom and elsewhere. In sharp contrast to the
CH-46E retiring from medium helicopter squadrons, the MV-22 Osprey
tilt-rotor can haul Marines anywhere in Afghanistan from one main
operating base. Unlike the unarmed KC-130T that still hauls cargo and
refuels jets, helicopters, and tilt-rotors, the Harvest Hawk-modified
KC-130J can also give precision fire support to Marines on the ground.
Though yet to fly, the CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement helicopter
promises to fit the same deck footprint as today's CH-53E yet carry
nearly three times the payload to high-and-hot landing zones.
from Iraq, pending withdrawal from Afghanistan, and national debt
pressures are driving cuts in U.S. force structure. The Marine Corps,
202,000 strong last year, will shrink to 182,000 by 2017 and has
already trimmed the AH-1Z program of record from 226 to 189 attack
helicopters. The MV-22 and CH-53K programs are, for the present,
unchanged, and whatever the ultimate size and schedule of re-equipment
plans, Marine aviation will remain a highly integrated part of a
uniquely expeditionary fighting force.
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter
In January this year, Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron (VMFAT) 501 at Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., received the first production Lockheed Martin
F-35B. The fleet replacement squadron is part of the Integrated
Training Center preparing Marine, Air Force, and Navy pilots and
maintainers for the new Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). The Marine Corps JSF
program of record now includes the F-35B and F-35C,
both stealthy, multisensor strike aircraft designed to be survivable
amid integrated air defenses and digitally connected in a networked
battlespace. The short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) F-35B promises
the Marine Corps a fighter compatible with large-deck amphibious assault
ships (LHAs and LHDs). The carrier-based, catapult-launched F-35C offers identical systems with greater range and payload. Marine plans now call for a total of 420 aircraft to replace AV-8B Advanced Harriers on LHAs/LHDs and F/A-18A/C/D Hornets and EA-6B Prowlers aboard Navy carriers and at shore bases.
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE>>
Enterprise Returns Home from Final Deployment
The Navy's largest, oldest ship and its first nuclear carrier prepares for decommissioning
Sailors, Marines and family members aboard the aircraft
carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) observe the aircraft carrier USS Harry
S. Truman (CVN 75) as the ships pass in the Atlantic Ocean. Enterprise
was completing her final deployment to the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet
areas of responsibility in support of maritime security operations and
theater security cooperation efforts. Her unique island structure made
her readily identifiable among U.S. Navy supercarriers. U.S. Navy photo
by Lt. Ryan de Vera
The USS Enterprise (CVN 65), the world's first nuclear powered aircraft carrier,
has come home for good after her 22nd overseas deployment, this time
to the U.S. Navy's 5th and 6th Fleet areas of operation - the Middle
East and Mediterranean. She returned to her homeport Nov. 4, 2012,
after completing her 25th and final deployment.
51 years of age, she is the longest currently serving ship in the
fleet. Her decommissioning and Inactivation ceremony is planned for Dec.
1, 2012. The Inactivation Ceremony will be the last official and
public event for the "Big E." After the ceremony, her eight nuclear
reactors will be removed and the ship dismantled.
aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) underway as flagship of the
Enterprise Carrier Strike Group (CSG) to support maritime security
operations and theater security cooperation efforts in the U.S. 6th
Fleet area of responsibility. This was the last deployment for the
Navy's first nuclear-powered supercarrier. U.S. Navy photo by Mass
Communication Specialist 3rd Class Scott Pittman|
steamed 80,968 miles during her 238-day deployment. Carrier Air Wing 1
(CVW-1) flew more than 8,000 sorties in support of Operation Enduring
Freedom and exercises in the 5th and 6th Fleet AORs.
has not been a victory lap for Enterprise by any means," said Rear
Adm. Ted Carter, Enterprise Carrier Strike Group commander. "This has
been a full-on combat operation. We've seen the full spectrum of Navy
operations on this deployment. It's been a business as usual kind of
Enterprise Carrier Strike Group included Destroyer Squadron (DESRON) 2,
the Mayport, Fla.-based guided missile cruiser USS Vicksburg (CG 69)
and three Norfolk-based guided missile destroyers: USS Porter, (DDG 78)
USS Nitze (DDG 94) and USS James E. Williams (DDG 95). Also returning
were the aviation squadrons of her air wing, Carrier Air Wing 1 (CVW
1), which includes of F/A-18 Hornets and Super Hornets
from Oceana Naval Air Station (VFA-211 "Checkmates," VFA-11 "Red
Rippers," and VMFA-251 "Thunderbolts") ; the electronic attack squadron
VAQ-137 "Rooks," flying the EA-6B Prowler; the carrier airborne early warning
squadron VAW-123 "Screwtops," Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadron
11(HS-11), the "Dragonslayers;" and a detachment of C-2A Greyhound
carrier onboard delivery (COD) aircraft from the VRC-40 "Rawhides."
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE>>
Army Exploring M110 Semi Automatic Sniper System (SASS) Improvements
M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System (SASS) is one of the U.S. Army's
more recently procured medium caliber sniper rifles. The Army is seeking
to shrink the weapon's size and lower its weight. PEO Soldier photo|
In much the same way that the U.S. Marine Corps is exploring potential enhancements
to its current 7.62 x 51 mm M40A5 Sniper Rifle, the U.S. Army is also
exploring a number of similar enhancements to its own 7.62 x 51 mm M110
Semi Automatic Sniper System (SASS).
The M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System (SASS) is an
anti-personnel and light antimateriel weapon that fires 7.62 mm
ammunition out to a maximum effective range of 800 meters. It
incorporates a rapid fire/rapid reload design, variable-power day optic
sight, and 10- or 20-round detachable box magazines. The weapon system
exceeds the rate-of-fire and lethality of the M24 Sniper Weapon
System. The M110 weapon system (combat ready with suppressor and loaded
20-round magazine) weighs 17.3 pounds. PEO Soldier photo
First fielded [first unit equipped] in the 1st quarter of FY 08, the M110 SASS
is a lightweight, direct gas operated, semi - automatic, box magazine
fed, 7.62 x 51 mm rifle intended to engage and defeat personnel targets
out to 800 meters. The weapon is manufactured by Knight's Armament Company, based in Titusville, Fla. The weapon's associated Leupold Mark IV 3.5-10X
scope provides field of view options to suit the specific tactical
range applications. Using 10-round or 20-round detachable magazines, the
semi-automatic M110 SASS greatly exceeds the rate of fire and
lethality of the previous M24 Sniper Weapon System.
representatives outlined their interest in enhanced characteristics
through a recent "sources sought" announcement. The announcement,
dubbed Compact Semi - Automatic Sniper System (CSASS), was released by
the U.S. Army's Army Contracting Command on behalf of the Project Manager Soldier Weapons (PMSW).
interest focuses on manufacturing a complete system or reconfiguring
some or all of the existing M110 SASS currently available in Army
criteria outlined for the notional CSASS focus on size and weight
improvements. Specifically, the announcement calls for the overall
length of the weapon to be reduced using a shorter barrel and/or
collapsible buttstock. Maximum overall assembled length of the rifle
would be no greater than 36 inches with the stock at its shortest
position and no sound suppressor mounted. This compares with a
40.5-inch length for the current SASS with buttstock fully compressed
and without suppressor.
"no more than 9.0 lbs. for the unloaded rifle without optics and
accessories," the CSASS would also be lighter than the current SASS
Other noted CSASS criteria include:
- semi-automatic operation;
- compatibility with 7.62 x 51mm NATO cartridges;
- modular, adjustable pistol grip;
- non-adjustable match style trigger;
- fore-end hand guard that includes a fixed 12 o' clock rail with configurable 3, 6, and 9 o' clock rails;
- muzzle mounted, detachable compensator/muzzle brake compatible with the sound suppressor;
- bipod with tool-less detachment featuring cant and pan/track capability;
- Army specified variable power day optic and compatible rings;
- back-up iron sights offset 45 degrees from the day optic scope;
- flush cup, quick detach sling attachment points; and,
- "Significant improvement from M110 requirements while enduring higher rates of fire."
announcement identified a CSASS production requirement "at an
estimated range of 125 per month with a capability to ramp up to 325 per
Operation Harling: British Special Operations Executive Team Blows Bridges In Greece
Andartes (resistance fighters) in Greece, ca. 1944. The Greek Andartes
overcame division between the two main resistance groups in order to
help the Special Operations Executive carry out Operation Harling.
National Archives photo|
"Get the sheep away from the bridge, the British are going to blow it up tonight!"
-Elderly villager warning sheepherders at the base of the Gorgopotamus viaduct
Supplies for Axis troops
in North Africa arrived from Europe one of two ways: in the west
through Italy and Sicily and then to Tunis or Benghazi, and in the east
through Greece and Crete and then to Benghazi or Tobruk. During the summer of 1942, Lt. Gen. Bernard Montgomery and his Eighth Army were preparing for what would become the Second Battle of El Alamein.
Disrupting the Axis supply line in Greece now became a priority. The
main supply route there was a single-track railroad line, part of the
famous Oriental Express route, that ran down the middle of Greece,
terminating at the port of Piraeus. Because the road network in Greece
was all but nonexistent and there were so few railways, even a partial
destruction of that line would compromise supply efforts. Planners
determined that the best choke point was about 75 miles northwest of
Priaeus in the rugged Brallos Pass. Three railroad viaducts were located
there: Gorgopotamus, Aspops, and Papadice. Commander in Chief Middle
East army headquarters assigned Special Operations Executive (SOE) the
task of wrecking them. It was SOE's largest and most complex mission to
date. Led by Lt. Col. Edmund "Eddy" Myers, twelve SOE soldiers prepared
to launch Operation Harling.
Gorgonpotamos viaduct blown up in 1942 by the Special Operations
Executive as part of Operation Harling and subsequently rebuilt. Crown
Myers divided the team into three groups of
four. Each group
contained a leader, an interpreter, a sapper, and a radio operator. The
first attempt to insert the teams on Sept. 28, 1942, failed as the
three modified B-24 Liberators couldn't find the prearranged landing
zone signal fires. Another attempt was made two days later. This time
signal fires were located near Mount Giona in Central Greece. Though
the fires' arrangement was not what everyone had been told to expect,
the decision was made to parachute in.
Instead of landing close
to each other, the groups and their supplies wound up scattered. The
group led by Maj. Christopher Woodhouse landed near the signal fires.
Woodhouse, who spoke fluent Greek, soon discovered why the signal fires
were odd. They had been set by three villagers who, having heard the
bombers two nights ago, hoped that by doing so they'd be rewarded with
an aerial drop of supplies and ammunition - not soldiers!
The second group landed
some distance away. Because of the rugged terrain and the need to avoid
detection, a week would pass before it rendezvoused with Woodhouse's.
most harrowing experience occurred with Maj. Cooke's group. Three
members landed near the Italian fortified town of Karpenissi, with one
of them landing in the town itself. Friendly villagers managed to help
all four evade the Italian troops. Ultimately it took Cooke's group two
weeks to join the others.
During this period the
SOE groups encountered Greek andartes (guerrillas) from the two main
Resistance groups, the Communist-backed Greek People's Liberation Army
(ELAS) and the right-wing National Republican Greek Leagues. After
being briefed on the mission, for the first and only time the two rival
groups agreed to work together to help make Operation Harling a
Reconnaissance of the three viaducts determined that the Gorgopotamos
viaduct was the most vulnerable. The andartes would attack the
garrisons stationed at both of the approaches. Once the garrisons had
been neutralized, the SOE team hidden in the valley would attach
explosives to the base of the pier supporting the middle of the
C.M. Woodhouse (left), who in September 1943 succeeded Brig. Gen. E.
Myers as commander of the British Military Mission in Greece. Maj.
"Jerry" Wines, U.S. Army, co-commander of what became the Allied
Military Mission, is at right. Crown copyright.|
The attack began at
11:00 p.m. on Nov. 25. The assault on the garrisons was supposed to
last a few minutes. Instead it continued for more than an hour. Worried
about enemy reinforcements, Myers ordered his men to start laying
their charges. At 1:30 a.m. on Nov. 26, the first explosions detonated,
collapsing two spans. About an hour later the remaining span was
destroyed. By 4:30 a.m., with the andartes suffering only four wounded,
the attackers departed.
SOE's success set the
stage for similar major operations throughout Europe. It took seven
weeks for the Axis to repair the viaduct. Hitler also reassigned six
divisions from the Eastern Front to Greece. Woodhouse and a couple
other senior members of Harling were ordered to remain in Greece and
form the British Military Mission to Greece.
Years later Woodhouse, a
retired colonel and the 5th Baron Terrington, recalled that security
was a constant problem in Greece. "If one Greek knew, then all knew,"
he said. "So we became resigned to the fact there was no real secrecy,
whatsoever. However, since nobody told the enemy, our plans were not
A video clip about Operation Harling can be seen on YouTube at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4agppakDL6Y.
The SAS Originals: Daring to Win
close-up of a heavily armed patrol of 'L' Detachment SAS in their
Jeeps, just back from a three month patrol. The crews of the jeeps are
all wearing 'Arab-style' headdress, as copied from the Long Range Desert
Group, Jan. 18, 1943. Imperial War Museum photo|
"... I have always felt uneasy in being known as the founder of the [SAS] Regiment. ..."
-Sir David Stirling, June 30, 1984
The Time: The night of Nov. 16-17, 1941.
The Place: The Western Desert of North Africa in World War II.
The Force: 65 picked and trained men.
Mission: Parachute behind German lines and destroy enemy aircraft on
airfields, which will threaten an Allied counteroffensive, code-named Operation Crusader, due to launch in just two days.
The Facts: It's their first mission. The unit, the Special Air Service (SAS), is revolutionary and brand new.
Their leader, then-Capt. David Stirling, is considered by his own
superiors to be a maverick. And to top it all off, the military
bureaucracy of Middle East Headquarters (ME HQ) wants them to fail.
Before the SAS can take off, a massive storm blows up and the 65 men are
given the option of pulling out. They face a difficult dilemma: Cancel
the drop and their own high command will kill off the unit before it
has run its first mission. Or jump into the storm, and chances are that
many of them won't survive.
decide to go and jump. In the storm, the men are separated from their
gear and explosives, and don't even reach the targeted enemy airfields.
Of the 65, just 21 make it out, across the desert, to the rendezvous
(RV) point for the trip back to their base camp.
should be the end of the story. In fact, it's the beginning of the
story of a modern military revolution: The birth of modern special
operations forces. And to understand what happens next, it's necessary
to know what has gone before. Because the 21 men who jumped into that
storm, and somehow survived to fight on, are the founding members of the
British SAS. Within their small, insular community they are today
known as "The Originals," and this is their story.
records that a young Scots Guards officer, David Stirling, founded the
SAS in late 1941. Stirling was born into the Scottish aristocracy (his
father was a general) in 1915. The indications from his early life
weren't promising. Stirling was sent down from Cambridge University for
drinking and gambling. He then spent two years in Paris studying art,
then trained in the Alps and American Rockies as a mountain climber.
His aim - to be first man to climb Mount Everest.
war with Germany broke out in 1939, Stirling joined the Scots Guards.
In 1941, he went to the Middle East with "Layforce," a commando force
led by Robert Laycock. By late that year, Rommel's Afrika Korps had
driven the British back to the Egyptian border and were threatening the
Suez Canal and Arabian oil fields. And in the eyes of aggressive young
men like Stirling, the vast potential of British commando units to
disrupt the Afrika Korps was being squandered by their own leaders.
a 1985 interview, Stirling remembered what it was like. "They didn't
want to risk having casualties and therefore unless the weather, or all
the other requirements for any operation or undertaking, was
absolutely right, they wouldn't let us go," he said. "So we were
involved in a series of postponements and cancellations." Nevertheless,
the experience of commando operations was already sowing an idea in
got around thinking regarding how one could carry out the role at a
hundredth of the cost," he said. "In fact, it made it inevitable to
come up with a proposition along the lines of SAS."
|"Gentleman" Jim Almonds. Photo courtesy of Special Air Service Regimental Association|
idea became a hard proposal as a result of a near-fatal
parachute-training jump. Stirling's chute caught on the tail of the
aircraft and was torn open before he could cut loose. He landed badly.
His legs were temporarily paralyzed and he was hospitalized. Stirling
used the time to develop and write a paper on the proposal born from his
own commando experience, which he referred to as "Hard Principles."
Others would refine them, but today they are the essence of modern SOF
doctrine, what the military now calls unconventional warfare. As
Stirling explained, "One entire commando, 600 men or so, probably
couldn't succeed in tackling more than perhaps two landing grounds on
the same night, and more than three-quarters of the force would be taken
up with defending those who were actually operating. We preferred for
every sub unit of four to five men to tackle a full target area on
their own, and if they failed, it was more than compensated by the fact
that with 60 men we could attack, theoretically, probably up to 20
targets on the same night."
targets would also be different. His new unit would be small and
capable, operating deep behind the lines. Their missions, strategic in
nature, would involve attacking key points such as enemy airfields,
supply dumps, and ports - what Col. John Warden, (USAF, Ret.) would
later refer to as "centers of gravity."
astute, Stirling linked his proposal to create his new unit to an
actual Allied plan: Operation Crusader, which would attempt to relieve
the besieged port of Tobruk. His concept was that
his new unit, broken into small teams, would parachute behind Axis
lines and destroy enemy aircraft on their airfields to keep them from
influencing the coming battle. Still in his hospital bed, Stirling even
found a name for his revolutionary new unit: The Special Air Service.
Stirling recalled, "It came mainly from the fact that I was anxious to
get full cooperation of a very ingenious individual called Dudley
one of the masters of World War II deception, had been conspicuously
dropping dummy parachutists, mimicking training exercises, so that word
would get back to Rommel that the Allies had a sizable parachute
force. The name of his decoy force was the Special Air Service, which
Stirling promptly appropriated, probably to confuse enemies on both
sides. Sadly, Stirling already had an excess of opponents on the Allied
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The Battle of Roberts Ridge
"The Battle of Takur Ghar" by Keith Rocco. Operation
Enduring Freedom, the military action against Taliban and al Qaeda
forces in Afghanistan, was the catalyst for the largest mobilization of
Air National Guard personnel since the Korean War. It also marked the
first time that Air National Guard ground units, particularly
pararescue personnel and air combat controllers, were used to support
joint ground combat operations. As part of Enduring Freedom, in March
2002 a joint military operation named "Anaconda" was mounted in Paktia
province to surround and defeat Taliban forces hiding in the area.
National Guard painting by Keith Rocco
On March 2, 2002, Operation Anaconda, the largest set piece battle in Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan
(OEF-A), was launched. Its objective was the destruction of the Taliban
and al Qaeda terrorist bands that had taken refuge in the Shah-i-Kot
Valley in Paktia province, Afghanistan, near the Pakistan border. Though
it ended successfully, Gen. Tommy Franks, the commander of CENTCOM in 2002, later wrote in his autobiography, American Soldier, that the operation's plan "didn't survive first contact with the enemy."
Maj. Gen. Franklin Hagenbeck, commander of Task Force Mountain, who
oversaw the operation, realized that battlefield conditions threatened
to tip the initiative in the enemy's favor, he ordered two SEAL teams
inserted - one on a high ridge on the north side of the valley and
another at Takur Ghar (High Mountain), a mountain on the valley's
southeast border, where they would set up observation posts, identify
enemy positions and movement, and direct air strikes. The mission
inserting the SEAL team at Takur Ghar resulted in the bloodiest action
of the operation: the Battle of Roberts Ridge.
Shah-i-Kot (Place of the King) has historically been a guerrilla haven
and bastion. A small valley with a base elevation of 7,500 feet and
limited access, the mountain ridges that border it contain countless
caves, crevasses, and other natural features that make it a defender's
dream and an attacker's nightmare. Twice in the Soviet-Afghan War of
the 1980s, the Red Army launched major offensives against the
mujahedeen hiding there. Both times Soviet troops were driven out in
defeat. Would American forces, equipped with the latest technology and
advanced weapon systems, succeed where the Red Army had failed?
far, it had. The unprecedented use of U.S. special operations forces
(SOF), assisted by special operations troops from other nations, U.S.
Air Force and Navy air assets, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance
Afghan militia, had successfully overthrown the Taliban rulers of
Afghanistan within weeks of the launch of OEF-A in October 2001. The
focus had since shifted to the more difficult and demanding hunt-down of
the surviving Taliban remnants and al Qaeda terrorists.
map for U.S. Army Operation Anaconda. The area outlined in blue is the
Shah-i-Kot Valley, about 100 hundred miles south of Kabul,
Afghanistan, near the Pakistani border. U.S. Army map|
January 2002, intelligence reports indicated that the two groups were
marshaling forces in the Shah-i-Kot. Attempts to gather hard
information about the terrorists were hampered by the valley's
inaccessibility, rugged terrain, and the enemy's skill in camouflaging
its sites. This resulted in a paucity of facts that led to an
intelligence estimate overly dependent on guesswork and recent past
experience. The estimate determined that the valley contained 200 to 300
lightly armed, demoralized terrorists living among the 800 to 1,000
Afghan civilians in the valley's four villages. The belief was that
after a brief battle, the terrorists would cut and run, or surrender.
plan to eliminate the enemy in Shah-i-Kot was called Operation
Anaconda, a deliberate reference to the constrictor that coils its body
around its victim before crushing it. As originally drafted, Anaconda
was to have several concentric outer rings composed of U.S. SOF,
friendly Afghan militia, and special operations personnel - from
Australia, England, and other nations - who would surround the valley.
Once Shah-i-Kot had been isolated, the Afghan militia would advance into
the valley as a "hammer" that would drive the Taliban and al Qaeda
into the "anvil" composed of entrenched American forces. The plan
anticipated the operation would take three days, with the heaviest
fighting occurring on the first day. As it turned out, Anaconda lasted
plan began falling apart when the inadequately trained and
inexperienced local Afghan militia, demoralized by a friendly fire
incident, inadequate bombing of al Qaeda positions, and
stiffer-than-expected opposition, stopped fighting and returned to its
base within hours after the battle had started. It was now up to the
American troops to be both hammer and anvil against an enemy that they
had discovered was stronger, better armed than predicted, and determined
to fight it out.
the early morning hours of March 4, 2002, Chief Warrant Officer Al
Mack, piloting Razor 03, an MH-47E Chinook of the 160th Special
Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) - the Night Stalkers - lifted
off from his forward base at Gardez. In the cabin behind him were
members of Mako 30 - a team of six Navy SEALs - and Air Force Combat
Controller Tech. Sgt. John Chapman.
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96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne):
Advise, Maintain, Create
soldier with Team 621, Bravo Company, 96th Civil Affairs Battalion,
pictured while on patrol in Iraq, 2010. U.S. Air Force photo by Staff
Sgt. Mike Meares|
operations have been overshadowed by combat operations. That has
changed under the "new normal" of irregular warfare and military
operations other than war. Though combat operations that "win the war"
continue to get their share of the public spotlight, more and more
attention is now being focused on the troops tasked with the follow-up
"winning the peace"-the troops of Civil Affairs. Winning that war in
the Central Command area of operations is the mission of the 96th Civil
Affairs Battalion (Airborne), a component of the 95th Civil Affairs
A U.S. soldier from Company E, 96th Civil Affairs
Battalion, talks with an operator from the Mushahidah Water Treatment
Plant. Echo Company was attached to the 4th Stryker Brigade Combat
Team, 2nd Infantry Division, and conducted town assessments to gauge
the needs and level of leadership north of Baghdad in support of
Operation Iraqi Freedom. U.S. Navy photo by MC2 (AW/SW) Summer M.
The 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) is a U.S. Army brigade within U.S. Army Special Operations Command
whose units support military commanders in the field by working with
host nation government and non-governmental organizations as well as
indigenous populations on a wide variety of missions during peacetime
and in war.
When supporting special operations forces (SOF), these missions include foreign internal defense operations
carried out by SOF, support unconventional warfare and direct action
missions, conduct civil reconnaissance, terrain analysis, locating
civilian resources to support military operations, work to minimize
civilian interference with operations, support counterdrug operations,
and provide medical assistance to civilian populations. Civil Affairs
(CA) teams also identify critical requirements needed by indigenous
populations in war or disaster situations and work to rebuild and
restore infrastructure and institutions for long-term stability.
Affairs elements are an essential SOF instrument of force that project
small teams to areas of interest and achieve disproportionately large
-Capt. Lucas Overstreet, Mobile Fusion Team 644, 96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne)
The 95th Civil Affairs Brigade also contains the 91st Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne) responsible for operations in European Command and Africa Command, 97th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne) responsible for operations in Pacific Command, and 98th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne) responsible for operations in Southern Command.
activated in 1945 as the 96th Headquarters and Headquarters
Detachment, Military Government Group, it was deployed to South Korea
to assist with post-war occupation until it was deactivated in January
1949. In 1967 it was reactivated and redesignated the 96th Civil
Affairs Group and allotted to the U.S. Army. In 1971 it was reorganized
and redesignated the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion. It officially
became an airborne unit in 1986.
96th Civil Affairs Battalion has participated in a wide variety of
military and humanitarian operations beginning with Operation Urgent
Fury in Grenada and continuing to present day. It has campaign streamers
for Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Just Cause (Panama), Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.
The unit has received the Meritorius Unit Commendation (Army) for
Southwest Asia 1990-1991 and the Army Superior Unit Award for 1998-1999.
U.S. soldier with the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion, part of the 95th
Civil Affairs Brigade, mans an M60 machine gun mounted atop an
up-armored HMMWV. U.S. Army photo|
example among many of how the unit's troops "roll with the punches"
was demonstrated during Operation Just Cause. Company B, 96th Civil
Affairs Battalion was notified that it would be participating in the
operation whose mission was to oust the Panamanian dictator Gen. Manuel
combat troops, who anticipated leaving Panama shortly after combat
operations concluded, the company expected to remain in country for six
months. In a post-operation interview of the company for the U.S. Army Center of Military History,
the company's commander, Maj. John D. Knox, said that initially the
company's missions were ". . . running a displaced civilian camp . . .
establishing the new police force . . . [and] nation building with the
new government." Then, a new mission dropped into their lap: weapons
exchange. The obvious concern was to get as many weapons off the street
as quickly as possible.
B team leader Capt. Daniel Jacobs said, "Initially a whole lot wasn't
known about the program. . . . So I did some checking around to find
out exactly who's in charge of this thing. . . . somehow or other it
fell through the crack . . . and the plan was never approved -
with 4th PSYOPS, who printed pamphlets and arranged television and
radio broadcasts that explained how the program worked and locations of
the official exchange sites, the men of Company B went to work to
expedite it. Basically, people got an escalating amount of money
depending on the type of weapon they brought to one of three collection
points: fifty dollars for a handgun, a couple of hundred dollars for
an automatic weapon, etc.
one noteworthy case, Capt. Jacobs recalled a fifteen-year-old kid who
heard about the program and after being told the rates "came back with a
cache of weapons and received $5,000 for it."
the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion had a global focus, but with the
addition of the other Civil Affairs battalions beginning in 2006, 96th
CAB was assigned to the CENTCOM area of operations.
In the aftermath of the Arab spring, the crisis in Syria, and
challenges throughout the area of operations, 96th CAB is going to be
Corporal Dan Keighran - the soldier, his courage and the mates he saved
THE valley was descending into madness.
Machine gun fire was raking the air above them. Radios were crackling, men yelling above the static and gunfire.
Australian soldiers, about 20 of them with another 20 Afghan army, were
bunkered down. Sergeant Sean Lanigan was at the front of the patrol
with Private Paul Langer in what his Commander, Lieutenant Colonel Mark
Jennings, would later call a knife fight.
In other words, they were so close they may as well have been using knives, not machine guns.
"We were getting hit from a couple of positions," Sgt Lanigan said. "From thick marijuana crops."
Corn and wheat also grew. All taller than a man, it made it perfect for evil men to hide in.
was on the morning of August 24, 2010, the day Lance-Corporal Jared
MacKinney would be shot dead. And if not for the actions of another,
Corporal Dan Keighran, there might have been many more.
Keighran was awarded the Victoria Cross last week for what happened this
day, just the third VC winner since fighting began in Afghanistan.
battle is more than two years gone now, but this week Cpl Keighran,
with Lt Col Jennings, Sgt Lanigan, Corporal Lukas Woolley and Sapper
Joel Toms, recalled what happened that day. He wouldn't do it without
The air was full of machine gun fire and shouts, Afghani
soldiers missing and then found, gunfire coming from crops you cannot
see into, an enemy of unknown size, but of considerable firepower.
Afghani insurgents that planned the ambush had done a wonderful job.
The Australians were vulnerable, on the low side with only open ground
behind them, or a high, naked hill. It was so bare any attempt at
gaining higher ground was not worth considering.
"Get some eyes on the target," came the radio call.
At this, Sgt Lanigan saw Cpl Keighran running up the hill. In truth, he was already going before the instructions came.
"Oh shit!" Sgt Lanigan thought. Spr Toms saw him go, too. "Oh no!" he thought.
Cpl Keighran went up the hill with Private Sean Parker and two Afghanis.
got up the hill so fast he went too far. "I knew I went too far because
I nearly got shot in the first couple of seconds," he said.
bullets came in hard, punching the ground. "The closer it gets the
crisper it sounds. It's like a crack," he said. Cpl Woolley added, "Like
Cpl Keighran was in a bad spot. There wasn't
enough cover. He was too exposed. The cracks were crisp. "But I knew I
had to be there, essentially to support my mates in the trench," he
Such environments are not the place for hard luck stories. Actions here are always final, and sometimes fatal.
the Australians were under siege and, with the moment at hand, a man
with a bad haircut and an intelligent eye, who now commits his full time
work to time in the mines, was about to do something extraordinary.
Woolley sent about half a dozen Afghans to help Cpl Keighran. They
carried rocket-propelled grenades and heavy machineguns, and Cpl
Keighran began positioning them 10-15m apart, attracting fire every time
he moved to the next.
From there he called positions in and, on a
ridge about 1.5km west, four light-armored trucks carrying a .50
caliber machine gun, two 25mm Bushmaster chain guns, a 7.62mm machine
gun and an 84mm recoilless rifle fired.
For Cpl Keighran the
relief was brief. Realising he was calling in positions, the insurgents
turned their guns on the exposed hillside.
"That's when Dan and Sean Parker started really getting a massive amount of fire from long range," Sgt Lanigan said.
"It was perfect machine gun range. That's when we realized there was a lot of fire going above our heads hitting Dan and Sean."
The insurgents brought reinforcements. Fire started coming from farther away.
When the reinforcements arrived Cpl Keighran knew exactly where they needed to be, but they had to be told.
need to get fire support," Cpl Keighran thought, to engage the targets
further out. "I made the decision at this point to come off this hill,"
More machine gun fire rained down as he descended.
He ran in some places, crawled in others. Puffs of dirt spat up around him.
grabbed Captain Brendan Perkins: "We're getting engaged further out
than what's still going on close quarter. We need to get rounds on these
boys to help us out."
Back up the hill they went, crawling all
the way. On top, the machine gun fire picked up, so heavily they
couldn't stick their heads up to identify enemy positions.
Then, if he hadn't already by now, Cpl Keighran did something that would earn his Victoria Cross.
"Put down 50 rounds rapid fire, I'm gonna stand up," he said. "I'm gonna draw fire."
Most of us would think this is crazy. For most of us it would be. But Cpl Keighran is uncommon.
a point where you make a decision and there's a point beyond that," Cpl
Woolley said, "and I watched him go beyond that a couple of times." By
example, each time he watched Cpl Keighran go through his processes
before he acted. This was no ill-considered action.
"Essentially," Keighran said, he knew he had to "expose myself on top of this hill. I made the call to run across it."
all that gunfire, Cpl Keighran ran 20-30m to draw fire. He did this,
across a naked ridge, the bullets coming in crisp and clear.
Then he did it again.
The third time he ran even further. "I went way too far," he said.
He ran 45-50m, bullets zinging around him.
"The second time was pushing it, the third time - I'm lucky, to say the least."
Spotting muzzle fire, they identified three enemy positions that were soon taken out, turning the battle.
Woolley saw enough to be alarmed and jump on the radio. "Dan, jump on
Channel 2," he said. "What do you need?" said Cpl Keighran.
"You're taking rounds real close," he said. "Watch out."
"Yeah," Cpl Keighran said. "No dramas."
Soon after, he was running again. Lance-Cpl MacKinney had just been shot.
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